The analysis supported model hypotheses but identified substantial heterogeneity in the hypothesized relationships across studies unattributed to sampling and measurement error. We will also identify the gaps in the evidence with respect to the model including the need for greater diversification to other educational domains to confirm the generalizability of the model beyond the PE context, the need for more longitudinal tests of the model, and the imperative for more experimental and intervention research.
Educators are interested in whether students apply the knowledge and skills that they have learned in the classroom in everyday contexts.
Similarly, autonomous motivation is defined as engaging in activities out of a sense of personal agency, for the interest and satisfaction derived from the activity itself, or its concomitant outcomes, and in the absence of any externally referenced contingencies e.
We begin with an overview of the component theories that have informed the model, followed by how each component theory serves as a precursor of the specific propositions of the model. The same principle of transfer from classroom to out-of-school contexts can be applied to the fostering of important psychological attributes that enhance learning of, and persistence with, educational activities and lead to adaptive educational outcomes outside school.
These propositions and their importance within the context of the model will be outlined in the following section.
The model comprises three central propositions that inform a series of testable hypotheses. Within educational contexts, there is considerable evidence that continuing motivation and autonomous motivation are related A model of contextual motivation in adaptive outcomes such as persistence in the classroom and academic attainment e.
Failure to replicate or support the hypotheses for each proposition in empirical tests constitutes a rejection of the model and a failed replication. Abstract The trans-contextual model outlines the processes by which autonomous motivation toward activities in a physical education context predicts autonomous motivation toward physical activity outside of school, and beliefs about, intentions toward, and actual engagement in, out-of-school physical activity.
The analysis will seek to identify consistencies in the proposed pattern of effects across research that has adopted the model.
Importantly, such motives are strongly associated with persistence on self-directed learning activities. This link implies that autonomous motivation toward activities in an educational context like PE may transfer to motivation toward related activities in an out-of-school context like participation in leisure-time physical activity.
We will identify some criticisms levelled at the trans-contextual model and provide some potential solutions including the conditions that constitute a failed replication of the model, the conceptual rationale for relations between autonomous forms of motivation and the belief-based antecedents of future action in the model, and the causal ordering of the constructs in the model.
Specifically, we will conduct a path analysis of the hypothesized model relationships using a matrix of meta-analytically derived correlations among the model constructs. To facilitate understanding, the hypothesized relationships in the model are illustrated in Figure 1.
Specifically, we will clarify the key processes proposed in the model: However, we contend that the model represents a generalizable framework to test the processes underpinning the transfer of motivation for in-class activities to motivation for related activities in contexts outside of school.
Figure 1 and Table 1 should be used as guides to complement the explanations of the model propositions and hypotheses that follow. Each proposition represents a fundamental, defining aspect of the model and comprises hypotheses that must be empirically supported for the model to be accepted.
We also present a set of peripheral hypotheses that, although integral to the model, are not essential to be confirmed for the overall model to be supported empirically.
We also evaluate the consistency of model relationships in previous tests of the model using path-analytic meta-analysis.
In the present article, we clarify the fundamental propositions of the model and resolve some outstanding conceptual issues, including its generalizability across multiple educational domains, criteria for its rejection or failed replication, the role of belief-based antecedents of intentions, and the causal ordering of its constructs.
By promoting autonomous motivation toward activities in the classroom, the teacher may be able to foster autonomous motivation toward similar activities outside of school.
In addition, we aim to provide cumulative support for the model through a quantitative synthesis of empirical tests of model hypotheses. The model has received considerable empirical support, particularly for the relationship between autonomous motivation in PE contexts and autonomous motivation for physical activities outside of school e.
In addition, the hypotheses and the propositions to which they pertain are formally outlined in Table 1. Based on our meta-analysis, future research needs to provide further replications of the model in diverse educational settings beyond physical education and test model hypotheses using experimental methods.
We will conclude our review by highlighting the importance of motivational transfer from educational to out-of-school contexts and how the trans-contextual model assists in identifying the underlying psychological processes. The purpose of the present article is to a review the key propositions and hypotheses of the trans-contextual model, b resolve some of the conceptual and empirical questions relating to the model, c synthesize the findings of empirical tests of the model in educational contexts, and d derive recommendations for future research using the model.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.current methods used to measure achievement motivation, and introduces a contextual achievement motivation survey to assess achievement thoughts and behaviors.
Different forms of motivation include extrinsic, intrinsic, physiological, and achievement (Atkinson, ; Harackiewicz, Barron, Carter, Lehto, &. The trans-contextual model outlines the processes by which autonomous motivation toward activities in a physical education context predicts autonomous motivation toward physical activity outside of school, and beliefs about, intentions toward, and actual engagement in, out-of-school physical activity.
contextual model of motivation to examine the process by which school student’s self-determined or autonomous motivation in physical education (PE) contexts is transferred to motivation to engage in leisure-time physical activity. The model. The proposed trans-contextual model of autonomous motivation integrated tenets of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, b, ), Vallerand’s () hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen,).
Contextual Factors and Knowledge Sharing Motivation: A Research Framework This article conducts a literature review and aims to identify the contextual factors determining employees.
A Model of Contextual Motivation in Physical Education: Using Constructs From Self-Determination and Achievement Goal Theories to Predict Physical Activity Intentions.Download